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Asterisk All About Worship | Being Muslim
27/10/2017 The Fit Hijabi in Religion / 4 responses

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Back again with the Islamic bookclub! I’ll post a summary of each chapter of an Islamic book I’m reading, so you get the rundown without ever picking it up!

This is all about how we worship…

(I had to quote the book a lot in this one, as it goes a little more in depth!)

Being Muslim : A Practical Guide by Asad Tarsin.


Legal Rulings

Legal rulings in Islam tell us how good/bad an act is, how important it is to perform/stay away from an act, and tells the consequences of that said action!

Required (fard): These are actions that a Muslim must do. God ﷺ rewards these actions and they are recorded by Raqib and ‘Atid

Commendable (mustahab): These are actions that a Muslim can do. God ﷺ rewards these actions, but not doing these actions does not equal sin. An example of this is the sunnah, or prophetic practice. This practice were performed by the Prophet Muhammadﷺ everyday.

Permissible (mubah): These actions do not receive reward or are labeled as sin. These are just normal actions!

Disliked (makruh): If Muslims refrain from these actions, they are rewarded. A Muslim will not be punished for doing these said actions.

Forbidden (haram): If a Muslim refrains from these actions, you are doing a duty to God ﷺ. If you do these actions, they result in sin.

Lawful (halal): This means that the action falls under either; fard, mustahab, mubah, or makruh.

A hadith from Prophet Muhammad ﷺ states that, “each child of Adam makes mistakes, and the best of those who err are the repentant.”

Muslims can erase their sins by repentance. Repentance is known as a gift from Godﷺ.

A hadith from Prophet Muhammad ﷺ says that one good deed is multiplied by ten, while one sin equals one sin!

Shari’ah: Islamic law. To be morally accountable for your actions you must be sound of mind, have reached puberty, and believe in Islam. “This means that prepubescent children, the mentally ill or challenged, the insane or unconscious, and those who have not received the message of Islam are not held accountable for following the sacred law of Islam [pg. 43].”



This means prayer. Other religions have personal prayers, where they beseech God for a need or request, is called supplication (du’a).

With prayer comes preparation. To prepare for prayer you have to:

  • Ensuring the ritual cleanliness of your body, clothes, and place of prayer
  • Being in a state of ritual purity
  • Facing the proper the proper prayer direction
  • Covering the body appropriately

Purification refers either to: a) the process of removing filth to attain ritual cleanliness, or b) the performance of the ritual washings to attain the status of ritual purity. Both modes of purification require the use of pure, unaltered water. Unaltered water is water that is colorless, tasteless, and odorless [pg. 45].”

Ritual cleanliness is the absence of filth (najasah), according to shari’ah. These substances are:

  • Liquid Intoxicants (e.g., wine)
  • Vomit
  • Pus
  • Pre-Seminal Fluid
  • Semen
  • Blood
  • Human Feces and Urine
  • The Feces and Urine of Animals that are haram to eat by shari’ah

Filth, according to shari’ah, is different from a purely hygienic lack of cleanliness. For example, if a man’s trousers were splattered with mud, they would certainly be dirty, but they would not be considered filthy by shari’ah [pg. 46].”

Ritual cleanliness has another category which is minor ritual impurity. Causes of this include:

  • Urination
  • Defecation
  • Passing Gas
  • Deep Sleep
  • Lustful Emission of Pre-Seminal Fluid
  • Intoxication or State of Insanity
  • Loss of Consciousness
  • Sensual Touching and Kissing
  • Touching of a Penis with the Inner Part of the Hand or Fingers

To purify yourself from minor ritual impurity you must perform wudu (ritual washing).

When in minor ritual impurity, one must not touch;

  • Salah
  • Circling (tawaf) of the Sacred House (Ka’bah) in Mecca
  • Touching a hard copy (mushaf) of the Quran (in originial Arabic)

Causes of major ritual impurity includes:

  • Menstration
  • Postpartum Bleeding
  • Ejaculation
  • Sex

In major ritual impurity you cannot purify yourself by performing wudu. You have to perform a ritual bath (ghusl).

When a woman is on her period or have postpartum bleeding, she is not required to perform salah and fasting (sawm). It is permissible for her to recite the Quran verbally. It is haram to touch the mushaf of the Quran.

When a Muslim prays, they must face the Ka’bah and cover themselves appropriately. “For men the minimum that has to be covered is the area between the naval and the knees. For women, the face, hands, the soles of the feet can be exposed, but the rest of the body must be covered in prayer, even when all alone [pg. 55].”

It is fard to perform the five salah daily. 

Each prayer unit is called a rak’ah.

Each prayer is has a specific time and a specific amount of rak’ah.

  • Fajr – Dawn – 2 rak’ah
  • Zuhr – Midday – 4 rak’ah
  • Asr – Afternoon – 4 rak’ah
  • Maghrib – Sunset – 3 rak’ah
  • Isha – Night – 4 rak’ah

The Prayer Call (Adhan) signals Muslims go to the mosque and perform salah. It is mustahab to signal the Adhan when a group of believers are present. After the Adhan plays, it’s time to perform wudu. When it’s time to begin salah, the Call to Rise (Iqamah). This is mustahab to be performed before every prayer.



According to shari’ah, everyone is required to provide for the less fortunate and to purify the entire mass of wealth by giving to people who rightfully need it.

The people who are allowed to give zakah are those who make more than the liability minimum. The liability minimum is when wealth and assets are equivalent to 85 grams of gold or 595 grams of silver. That is roughly $3,497 or $327 according to gold and silver values in October 2017. A Muslim must make this amount for one year.

“There are eight categories of people that are eligible to receive the money from another’s zakah:

  • The Indigent: those who are in imminent danger of dying from lack of resources
  • The Poor: those below the poverty line but not in danger of dying
  • Those Struggling for the Cause of Godﷺ: people working to promote God’s cause, including those justly fighting to protect the innocent or oppressed
  • Slaves: although it is less common today, purchasing the freedom of a slave is a highly regarded act in Islam, worthy of immense reward from God ﷺ
  • Purifying Alms Distributors: the administrators and employees needed to distribute the collected wealth to its rightful recipients
  • Debtors: those with legitimate debts who are not able to pay them off with their own assets
  • Those Whose Hearts Are to be Won Over: this category includes recent converts or those for whom conversion to Islam is hoped
  • Stranded Travelers: those who have lost access to their wealth and are therefore unable to return home




Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. It is to remind us of what the less fortunate face, to intensify our level of worship and devotion, and to study the Quran.

The Night of Glory (Laylat al-Qadr) is a specific night that devotional acts are rewarded more than a thousand times!

It is fard that a Muslim fast from the beginning of the month to the end. Ramadan always starts with a pre-dawn meal (suhur), it is not required but is highly commendable. Fasting ends at the time of Maghrib. It is sunnah to break the fast by eating three dates or to drink a glass of water.

Fasting during this month means to refrain from eating, drinking, sensual acts, and sexual relations. This is to weaken the ego (nafs) to aid in self-purification. During fasting, one should abstain from listening or say forbidden speech, lie, backbite, slander, or be rude/argumentative.

People who are exempt from fasting are:

  • In Fear of One’s Health: a genuine concern for actual harm must exist, however, as hardship and fatigue are intrinsic to fasting and are not in exemption
  • The Ill: if they fear the fasting will delay recovery or worsen their illness, may also break their fast
  • The Elderly: if they are frail and fear the fast would harm their health
  • The Pregnant: same as ill
  • Breastfeeding Mothers: if they fear excessive fatigue for herself or harm to her child

[people who are exempt: pg. 80]



As Muslims, it is fard to travel to the Sacred House in Mecca at least once in their lives. Some Muslims even dedicate a bank account for their children, so that their children can afford to travel to Mecca! Hajj is the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.

Once entering Mecca’s greater zone, a Muslim has to enter the state of inviolability (ihram). “While in ihram, the pilgrim may not harm any animals or insects, use foul language, show impatience, or disturb the sacred grounds of the Sanctuary of Mecca [pg. 83].” On the way Mecca the pilgrim repeats the Response of the Summoned (Talbiyah) until they reaches the Ka’bah.

Hajj is a very in depth thing, it’s five pages in the book. So I’m gonna save this for later!!


Voluntary Worship

Each of these Five Pillars of Islam have a voluntary option:


  • Shaf (Even-numbered) and Witr (Odd-numbered): a sunnah practice that is performed by saying two rak’ahs (the even numbered) and closing out the prayer with a single rak’ah (the odd numbered).
    • Before Prayer: two rak’ahs – Required Prayer: Fajr – After Prayer: none
    •                             four rak’ahs                                    Zuhr                            two/four rak’ahs
    •                             four rak’ahs                                    Asr                               none
    •                             none/two rak’ahs                        Maghrib                     two/four rak’ahs
    •                             none/two rak’ahs                        Isha                              two, then one Shaf and one Witr 
  • Tarawih Prayer: this prayer is only performed during Ramadan and is performed after the Isha Prayer.
  • Night Vigil Prayers (Qiyam al-Layl): is performed in the last half of or the third of the night. This prayer is to become closer to God


Mondays and Thursdays are blessed days to fast. Other days to fast are:

  • The 13th, 14th, 15th of any lunar month
  • The day Moses split the Red Sea
  • The first nine days of Hajj (for non pilgrims)


 “In fact, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ has taught that it need not be financial in nature, and that ‘even a smile’ can be rewarded as charity [pg. 89].”


A Muslim can make a lesser pilgrimage to Mecca. This is performed any time of the year, instead of in the Sacred Month.


“Your Lord says, ‘Call on Me and I will answer you.'” Quran 40:60.

This is a personal prayer to Godﷺ.


“Believers, remember God with unceasing remembrance!” Quran 33:41

Examples of this are:

  • Subhan’Allah: How transcendent God is – expression of wonderment at His creation
  • Alhamdulillah: Praise belongs to God – expressing gratitude to God for bounties
  • La ilaha ill-Allah: Nothing is worthy of worship save God – to renew and strengthen our faith
  • Allahu Akbar: God is greater – exclaims God’s supremacy over anything and everything
  • Astaghfir Allah: I seek God’s forgiveness – for repenting and rectifying shortcomings
  • Allahumma salli wa ‘ala sayyidina Muhammad: O God: Bless and send peace upon our master, Muhammad – sending blessings upon Prophet Muhammad is rewarded, especially on Friday’s





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